22 Photos That Show What Autoimmune Disease Really Looks Like
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A study of mothers undergoing immunotherapy for two years prior to gestation revealed that immunized mothers passively transferred high amounts of allergen-specific IgG antibodies to their children compared with non-immunized mothers [ 18 ].
In a recent review, it was demonstrated that allergen-specific IgG and IgE antibodies with similar specificity are present and transferred from the blood of mothers into their breastmilk [ 19 ].
This opens the possibility to study the transmission of allergen-specific IgG antibodies from mothers to their offspring on the development of allergic sensitization in birth cohorts.
It has been reported that unique components of breastmilk confer both passive and active immune responses to the suckling infant [ 20 ]. Therefore, there has been consolidate firm efforts towards continuous breastfeeding in infants for up to two years [ 20 ].
In humans, IgG antibodies are transferred through the placenta from mothers to infants [ 21 ]. Since these maternal antibodies result from thymus-dependent immune responses, they reflect maternal immunological experience [ 22 ]. Maternal antibodies not only confer passive immunity to the infant but also active stimulation of isotype expression and enhancement of early primary antibodies [ 22 ].
It is also believed that through regulation of host gene expression, maternal antibodies potentially provide enduring benefits to the intestinal immune system of the breast-fed infant which can persist into adulthood [ 18 ]. The prime defensive attribute in breastmilk is that it is linked to minimal inflammation via its abundant secretory immunoglobulin A sIgA that do not activate the complement cascade [ 2 ].
Through immune exclusion, sIgA protects the intestinal lumen and respiratory passages from pathogenic microorganisms prior to first contact with epithelial receptors and may nullify bacterial virulence factors promoting a robust trigger of protection via gut-associated lymphoid tissue [ 23 ]. A study by Kassim et al. Their results revealed that the mean levels of IgA to the four organisms were higher in the breastmilk than in both maternal and infant sera which may indicate a protective role for breastmilk against infections in early childhood [ 24 ].
Whereas much of the attention on maternal vaccination has been focused on vaccine-induced maternal IgG, IgA and IgM responses in breastmilk, IgD has not been explored in depth yet. Many features of IgD make it a potential target of maternal vaccination as it contributes to the immune defence against respiratory pathogens such as Haemophilus influenzae and Moraxella catarrhalis that are common neonatal infections [ 22 ].
It has been suggested that maternal rubella-specific IgD persists longer than IgM and IgA after infection, and significant amounts of rubella-specific IgD can be transferred across the placenta during pregnancy [ 23 ]. The production of IgD is positively regulated byTH2 cytokines which allows IgD-induced vaccines to be more compatible with pregnancy than vaccines whose induction and protection require a strong pro-inflammatory TH1 environment [ 25 ].
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Moreover, IgD inhibit IgE-induced histamine release but not cytokine production by basophils making it a target by maternal vaccination to control the rising rate childhood allergies without triggering adverse pregnancy outcomes associated with histamine [ 26 ]. A number of immunological factors such as cytokines have been identified in human breastmilk [ 27 ].
Cytokines that are present in breastmilk can potentially interact with mucosal and lymphoid tissues in the upper parts of the respiratory as well as gastrointestinal tract [ 27 ]. Breastmilk contains anti-proteases that interfere with proteolysis, and some digestive agents are not fully developed in the newborn period.
Thus, biological functions of cytokines that are developmentally delayed in their production may be replaced by those present in breastmilk [ 27 ]. However, little is known about the role of cellular immune response and their effect on breastmilk after maternal vaccination. It has been reported that only one third of infants born to HIV-1 infected mothers who are continuously exposed to maternal breastmilk get infected. This observation raises the possibility that immune factors in infected women play a role in limiting HIV-1 transmission [ 28 ].
Moreover, a recent study by Mabuka et al. Their study adds to the growing evidence of a potential role of non-neutralizing antibodies in limiting HIV-1 transmission and calls for more attention to the HIV-1 response [ 28 ].
There has been a lot of controversy concerning the physiological significance of complement system in human breastmilk. This is mainly due to the observation that breastmilk contains predominantly non-inflammatory as well as anti-inflammatory factors, while simultaneously protecting the infant against a wide range of diseases [ 29 ].
A study by Ogundele assessed the role of complement system to the bactericidal activity of human colostrum. Results proved that deposition of activated C3 fragments on the killed examined bacteria was demonstrated and that the bactericidal activity of breastmilk was completely inhibited by heat inactivation of complement.
A review by Peterson et al. It is important to know that breastmilk contains all these factors against specific type of microorganisms. Maternal vaccination strengthens breastmilk immunity In developing countries, the administration of live vaccines during pregnancy is contraindicated because of the possible transplacental transmission of the attenuated virus to the foetus [ 4 ].
In contrast vaccination with killed or inactivated virus has not shown to cause any risk to the fetus when administered during pregnancy [ 34 ]. This strategy has the potential to protect the foetus and the pregnant woman from many infectious diseases during pregnancy. In addition it provides better protection to the infant after birth during the first months of life when they are too young to be vaccinated [ 35 ]. The direction provided through the practice of breastfeeding towards infant immunity and the augmentation by breastmilk of infant immunity is still insufficient to drastically reduce the morbidity and mortality of many diseases among infants.
It is known that vaccination confers protection by means of enhanced and focused immune responses [ 36 ].
It has been postulated that greater specific protection and more enduring immune responses transferred to the child through breastfeeding by maternal vaccination are of immense benefit to the infant. The many vaccine-induced immunological reactions may be assumed to be theoretically additive or even synergistic to the innate immune protection that is already present in breastmilk.
Many pathogens infect infants via mucosal surfaces. Therefore, stimulation of a local immune response at the site of infection would be the ultimate goal of a mucosal vaccine [ 32 ].
However, mucosal immunization faces difficulties in stimulating long-lasting immune responses. With Yahoo Answers, you can build a network of people you trust. The ability to follow other profiles and have people follow you provides the community with an option to keep up with people whose advice is trusted. To follow someone, simply click the Follow button on the person's Yahoo Answers profile. Be selective about who you follow, and be sure the person is someone you can trust.
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We brought special attention to one term, paranoid. The term suggests the cyberchondria phenomenon, where people's health concerns are escalated irrationally over the course of information searching White and Horvitz, We also found positive feelings, represented by love, trust, and fun. This may be explained by the fact that many of the questions were asked by care-givers and they tended to express their affection for their loved ones in questions. The situational layer includes users' health behaviour and socio-economic situations.
Health behaviour is one of the important topics in cancer information seeking Shim, Kelly and Hornik,as major health behaviour and lifestyle changes can prevent certain types of cancer Anand et al.
Our study further revealed that the askers mentioned smoking, drinking, sex, drug use, vaccines, as well as sun exposure and tanning. Additionally, askers mentioned money and health insurance, indicating their struggle with or interest in financial-related issues, which has also been revealed in previous studies Rutten et al.
In the social layer, terms represented family, friends, and acquaintances. They could be cancer patients, care-givers, or someone sharing an asker's family medical history. Their appearance vividly suggests that cancer is not a personal issue, rather, it affects individual's social ties, particularly families, in many different ways.
Cancer patients search for information about medical systems, primarily looking for whether or not a physician has sufficient experiences or qualifications Rutten et al. Our findings also indicate that askers post questions after consulting with their doctors, for various reasons; they may not have had enough time to fully discuss their concerns with doctors, or they may not trust their doctors White and Horvitz, The technical layer contains information sources and information-related social supports.
Two terms web and Internet appeared frequently, indicating their status as major sources of cancer-related information. Earlier studies on questions in social question and answer environments indicated that askers requested a variety of information, including facts, explanations, advice, personal stories and emotional support Westbrook, ; Zhang, The current study corroborated these findings by revealing that askers used terms, such as research, experience, idea, advice, and opinion to express their needs.
Our study has several implications. Theoretically, consumers' health information needs presented by natural language were systematically examined and framed within the contexts of health information behaviour. Findings, in one way, confirmed the layered model of contexts in health information searching by disclosing various topics that askers seek and share in questions.
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We adopted Zhang's model to guide our data analysis because it is specifically concerned about consumers' information needs in the context of health problems. Based on our empirical analysis, we revised the model, which specified the most common health topics in each layer in the case of cancer information seeking.
It also highlighted the intense discussions about social and technical issues, in addition to the cognitive aspects of information seeking in health questions. Correspondingly we reorganized the layers in the original model and assign some of the layers with new definitions see Figure 3.
A comparison of Zhang's and the revised models of contexts in layers Specifically, the demographic layer focuses on the two most frequently discussed topics in cancer-related questions, sex and age. Zhang's model specifies three cognitive contextual factors: The current model blended the three factors and emphasized the medical aspect of users' representations of their conditions i. Non-medical information associated with health behaviour and lifestyles are moved to the situational layer.
The social and environmental layer was broken down into two layers: In the future, the revised model could be applied to analyse the context of health information needs discussed in other types of online communities or social media.
The major methodological implication of the study is that text mining, facilitated by appropriate theoretical lenses, could be an effective way to help understand information seeking behaviour at the population level. Several studies utilized the text mining method to examine users' information needs, but they mainly used cluster analysis to identify the most common topics appearing in online health communities Chen, ; Kim et al.
In our study, going beyond identifying the most common themes, we further analysed the extracted terms based on Zhang's layered model of context for health information searching. This model-based approach is fruitful. It allowed us to more systematically examine users' cancer-related questioning behaviour in the social question and answer context.
This approach could be adopted to examine questions and answers regarding other topics in such contexts or other types of social media. Several practical implications can be drawn from this study. First, the findings of this study could be useful for health care providers, especially physicians, to better understand their patients' concerns regarding cancer. They could learn about what kinds of symptoms cause their patients to believe that they may have cancer, what makes their patients hesitate to have tests or treatments, and what are the situational factors causing their patients to believe they may have cancer.
Health care providers could develop materials for health promotion and education, for example, to deliver information that addresses consumers' concerns in questions.
Second, the results highlighted the cyberchondria phenomenon related to health anxieties and the escalation of such anxieties in the social question and answerr environment.
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Prior studies found that cancer patients' stresses and anxiety were mitigated when they received personalised messages Mayer et al. Social question and answer sites could be an ideal environment for seeking or receiving personalized answers due to its human computation nature; nevertheless, there is still room for developers to think about how to provide users with more personalised answers.
For example, systems can provide certain metadata to describe answerers' age ranges or sex to help contextualise the answers. Our findings also could inform the design of general health information search systems. Specifically, an information search system could enable users to specify their cancer information inquiries according to various demographic, cognitive, affective, social, situational, and technical parameters to receive more tailored search results.
Limitations This study has a few limitations. First, the current study took a descriptive approach to analyse data and it may not reveal the latent and potential relationships among the topics in health questions. The current study was, however, useful to facilitate rich data gathering and analysis and could be used to develop follow-up studies, examining the distributions and applications of the topics in health information seeking and sharing.
Secondly, the text mining technique that we used could be improved. For example, we could not infer the meaning of numbers and thus we were not able to determine whether a particular number refers to weight, height, age, or cancer stage.
22 Photos That Show What Autoimmune Disease Really Looks Like
Also, unlike queries, which indicate specific subjects searched, our text mining techniques only allow us to identify what's being expressed, while lack the ability to differentiate what is being requested and what constitutes background information.
Third, both the original and the augmented layered model of contexts were developed based on questions collected from Yahoo! Answers is one of the most frequently visited social question and answer sites, but may not represent users' questioning behaviour in all such sites. Conclusion The current study analysed a large number of cancer-related questions using the text mining method coupled with a manual review of a subset of questions.