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They occupied neighborhood institutions and led massive demonstration to make people aware. These countermovements can be unsuccessful, though. The people who support reviving neighborhoods are also members, and their voices are the ones that the gentrifiers tend to hear London and Palen, As an economic process[ edit ] Two discrete, sociological theories explain and justify gentrification as an economic process production -side theory and as a social process consumption -side theory that occurs when the suburban gentry tire of the automobile-dependent urban sprawl style of life; thus, professionals, empty nest aged parents, and recent university graduates perceive the attractiveness of the city center—earlier abandoned during white flight —especially if the poor community possesses a transport hub and its architecture sustains the pedestrian traffic that allows the proper human relations impeded by sub urban sprawl.
A survey of Northwest Chicago conducted between and showed that homes located directly in the vicinity Red Line and Brown Line stops of the "L" rail transit system saw a huge price jump during these years, compared to only modest increases for area outside the zone.
Between and in particular, homes near transit stops nearly doubled in value. The investigators Rose, Beauregard, Mullins, Moore et al.
He asserts that restructuring of urban space is the visual component of a larger social, economic, and spatial restructuring of the contemporary capitalist economy. This change in consumption causes a fall in inner city land prices, often resulting in poor upkeep and a neglect of repair for these properties by owners and landlords.
The depressed land is then devalued, causing rent to be significantly cheaper than the potential rent that could be derived from the "best use" of the land while taking advantage of its central location. When the gap is sufficiently wide, real estate developerslandlordsand other people with vested interests in the development of land perceive the potential profit to be derived from re-investing in inner-city properties and redeveloping them for new tenants. Thus, the development of a rent gap creates the opportunity for urban restructuring and gentrification.
Abandoned industrial areas create availability for land for the rent gap process.Speed Dating Washington DC - Singles Events - Matchmaking
Spatial centralization and decentralization of capital[ edit ] De-industrialization is often integral to the growth of a divided white collar employmentproviding professional and management jobs that follow the spatial decentralization of the expanding world economy. However, somewhat counter-intuitively, globalization also is accompanied by spatial centralization of urban centers, mainly from the growth of the inner city as a base for headquarter and executive decision-making centers.
This concentration can be attributed to the need for rapid decisions and information flow, which makes it favorable to have executive centers in close proximity to each other.
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Thus, the expanding effect of suburbanization as well as agglomeration to city centers can coexist. These simultaneous processes can translate to gentrification activities when professionals have a high demand to live near their executive workplaces in order to reduce decision-making time.
At the end of a period of expansion for the economy, such as a boom in postwar suburbs, accumulation of capital leads to a falling rate of profit. It is then favorable to seek investment outside the industrial sphere to hold off onset of an economic crisis. By this time, the period of expansion has inevitably led to the creation of rent gap, providing opportunity for capital reinvestment in this surrounding environment.
The aging baby-boomer population, greater participation of women in the workforce, and the changes in marriage and childrearing norms explain the appearance that gentrification takes, or as Smith says, "why we have proliferating quiche bars rather than Howard Johnson's".
The North Loop neighborhoodMinneapolis, Minn. In contrast to the production-side argument, the consumption-side theory of urban gentrification posits that the "socio-cultural characteristics and motives" of the gentrifiers are most important to understanding the gentrification of the post-industrial city.
The economic and cultural changes of the world in the s have been attributed to these consumption changes. The antiauthoritarian protest movements of the young in the U.
In the postindustrial economy, the expansion of middle class jobs in inner cities came at the same time as many of the ideals of this movement. Extensive canopy guidance protects tree cover throughout the PRC, and homeowners are prohibited from removing trees larger than 4 inches in diameter without written permission from Reston's Design Review Board. Simon envisioned a total of seven village centers, but only five were developed.
Each village center, all of which save North Point predate the Reston Town Centerwas intended to be a short walk from most homes and incorporate the daily retail and community service needs of residents. Moderately denser developments, such as apartments and townhouse clusters, as well as some single-family homes, encircle each center. A fifth crossover at Soapstone Drive has been proposed by Fairfax County transportation planners, though funding has not yet been identified.
Lyndon Johnsonvisited Reston to take a walking tour along its pathways as part of her interest in beautification projects. Apollo 11 astronauts Neil Armstrong and Buzz Aldrin visited Reston elementary schools named for them. The Washington Post featured a road trip to Reston in January and a relatively new website "Beyond DC" has a page devoted to Reston with almost photos. Reston and Robert Simon were recognized by the American Institute of Certified Planners for their significant contributions to town planning.
The AICP further recognized Reston as a National Planning Landmark, praising Simon's vision for ensuring that fields and trees would be threaded throughout the residential and commercial portions of the community, and recognized it as "one of the finest examples of American 20th century conceptual new town planning.
Park Service's National Register of Historic Places, which serves as the official list of historic places worthy of preservation and protection.
Reston generally follows "new urbanism" guidelines. Many buildings in the PRC area are oriented away from main streets, and several major arteries lack complete sidewalk networks as a result of Fairfax County's control over Reston's transportation planning: The original inward orientation of the village centers was an intentional design element by Reston's early planners, who wished to avoid the commercial strip look that dominates many suburban developments.
The Reston Community Center RCC is a core element,  with its main building in south Reston at Hunters Woods Plaza and featuring a theater, indoor heated swimming pool with jacuzziballroom, meeting rooms, and classroom space. Reston is noted for its tree canopy, which currently covers about half of Reston's total area. In fact, World Taekwondo sparring competitions award additional points for strikes that incorporate spinning kicks, kicks to the head, or both. The tradeoff of decreased stability is believed to be worth the commensurate increase in agility, particularly in Kukkiwon-style taekwondo.
Theory of power[ edit ] The emphasis on speed and agility is a defining characteristic of taekwondo and has its origins in analyses undertaken by Choi Hong Hi. Choi based his understanding of power on biomechanics and Newtonian physics as well as Chinese martial arts.
For example, Choi observed that the power of a strike increases quadratically with the speed of the strike, but increases only linearly with the mass of the striking object. In other words, speed is more important than size in terms of generating power.
This principle was incorporated into the early design of taekwondo and is still used. He expanded on this principle with his advocacy of the sine wave technique.
This involves raising one's centre of gravity between techniques, then lowering it as the technique is performed, producing the up-and-down movement from which the term "sine wave" is derived. Kukkiwon-style taekwondo, for example, does not employ the sine wave and advocates a more uniform height during movements, drawing power mainly from the rotation of the hip. The components of the Theory of Power include: As an example, if the right leg is brought forward in a roundhouse kickthe right arm is brought backwards to provide the reaction force.
Concentration - the principle of bringing as many muscles as possible to bear on a strike, concentrating the area of impact into as small an area as possible. Equilibrium - maintaining a correct centre-of-balance throughout a technique. Breath Control - the idea that during a strike one should exhale, with the exhalation concluding at the moment of impact.
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Mass - the principle of bringing as much of the body to bear on a strike as possible; again using the turning kick as an example, the idea would be to rotate the hip as well as the leg during the kick in order to take advantage of the hip's additional mass in terms of providing power to the kick.
Speed - as previously noted, the speed of execution of a technique in taekwondo is deemed to be even more important than mass in terms of providing power. Typical curriculum[ edit ] While organizations such as ITF or Kukkiwon define the general style of taekwondo, individual clubs and schools tend to tailor their taekwondo practices. Although each taekwondo club or school is different, a student typically takes part in most or all of the following: Demonstrations often also incorporate bricks, tiles, and blocks of ice or other materials.
These techniques can be separated into three types: White uniforms are considered the traditional color and are usually encouraged for use at formal ceremonies such as belt tests and promotions.
Colored uniforms are often reserved for special teams such as demonstration teams or leadership teams or higher-level instructors. There are at least three major styles of dobok, with the most obvious differences being in the style of jacket: The cross-over front jacket usually seen in ITF stylein which the opening of the jacket is vertical. The belt color and any insignia thereon indicate the student's rank. Different clubs and schools use different color schemes for belts. In general, the darker the color, the higher the rank.
Taekwondo is traditionally performed in bare feet, although martial arts training shoes may sometimes be worn. When sparring, padded equipment is usually worn. In the ITF tradition, typically only the hands and feet are padded. For this reason, ITF sparring often employs only light-contact sparring.
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Specifically, the term dojang refers to the area within the school in which martial arts instruction takes place; the word dojang is sometimes translated as gymnasium. In common usage, the term dojang is often used to refer to the school as a whole.